The effect of different substitutions (Eu, Ce, Al, and Bi) on the structural and magnetic properties of Fe3O4

Document Type : Original Article


1 Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, P.O. Box: 35195-363, Semnan, Iran

2 Materials and Nuclear Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), P.O. Box 14395-834, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


In this study, the effect of different substitutions (Eu, Ce, Al, and Bi) on the structural and magnetic properties of Fe3O4 is investigated. All samples were synthesized with the cathodic electrochemical deposition method. The structural properties and surface morphology are investigated by  XRD and FESEM analyses. Structural analysis of the samples showed the formation of a single-phase structure with an Fd-3m space group. The results also showed that the lattice constant and the cell volume increase by increasing the substituted ion's radius. The results of surface morphology of the samples also showed that with increasing substituted ion radius, the average diameter of the samples increases. For BiFe2O4, EuFe2O4, CeFe2O4, and AlFe2O4 samples, the mean diameter was obtained at 50.038 (±13.60)nm, 47.95 (±9.62)nm, 36.06 (±8.29)nm, and 45.72 (±5.39)nm, respectively. And, the magnetic properties of the samples were investigated by VSM analysis. The study of the magnetic properties of the samples shows the superparamagnetic behavior for all samples. Also, the results show that substituting Fe ions with larger radii ions leads to a decrease in saturation magnetization (Ms) and residual magnetization (Mr).


Main Subjects

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